Isti’ala (The Elevated) and Istifal (The Lowered)

Isti’ala (The Elevated) and Istifal (The Lowered)
The Arabic letters, according to the sound direction,
are divided into:
Lowered
The sound doesn’t
raise up while
pronouncing ( these
letters) to the roof of
mouth
(The set letters)
Elevated
The sound raises up
while pronouncing (
these letters) to the
roof of mouth
(خُصَّ ضَغَطٍ قِظْ)
Kaf
the sound is lowered while
pronouncing lowered letter
Qaf
the sound raises up while
pronouncing elevated letter
The Elevated and The Lowered in terms of sound
direction
Tafkheem (Heaviness) And Tarqiq (Lightness)
Tafkheem:
Linguistic definition:
heaviness
Applied definition: it is
heaviness that enters the
body of the letter, so its echo
fills the mouth. This is
because the throat narrows,
the sound letter raises up to
the dome’s throat. It is an
Isti’ala (elevated) letter .
The Tafkheem (heavy) letter
as Qaf letter
Tarqiq:
Linguistic definition:
Lightness
Applied definition: it is
thinness the letter so its
echo doesn’t fill the mouth
and doesn’t narrow the
throat, the sound letter
doesn’t ascend to the
dome’s throat. It is Istifal
(lowered) letter
The Tarqeeq (light)
letter as Kaf letter
Tafkheem (Heaviness) And Tarqiq (Lightness)
The mouth shape in pronouncing the Tafkheem
letter with three movements
Opening mouth in
pronouncing Fat-ha
Circling mouth in
pronouncing Dummah
Lowering of the jaw
in pronouncing
Kasrah
The levels of Tafkeem (heaviness) of the Isti’ala
letters
The Imams of Tajweed have two schools of thought
regarding levels of tafkheem:
The first school of thought: It is Abi Alazsbgh Abd-Elaziz
Bin Ali Alsomaty Alashili’s school who was known by Bin
Altahan (died in 561 H).
The second school though: It is the Imam of readers
Mohmmed Bin Algazree’s school (He was died in 833 H).
The details of two school thoughts as the following:
The levels of Tafkheem (first school)
Letter with Fatiha(َ) as in {قَال} {قَدْ}
Letter with Dammah (ُ) as in {يَقُولُ}
Letter with Kasrah (ِ) as in{قِيلَ}
But the Sakin letter is treated according to the sign
its preceding letter as following: (يقْطَعُونَ) ((سُقْنَاهُ
شِقْوَتُنَا))
The levels of Tafkheem (second school)
Levels of Tafkheem of Isit’ala letters (elevated) [second
school] Letter with Fatiha(َ) followed by Alif(ا) , as in: (قَالَ)
Letter with Fatiha ( َ)not followed by Alif, as in (قَد)
Letter with Dammah (ُ), as in (يَقُول)
Letter with Sukoon (ْ), as in (يَقْطَعونَ) (سُقْنٰه) (شِقْوَتُنا)
Letter with Kasrah (ِ), as in ( قِيل)
The glorifying Al sheikh
Mohmmed Bin Ahmed Al-Mitwally
(died in 1313H)
said about the levels of
Tafkheem
of the Isti’ala letters
The heavy letters are coming in three classes as following:
With Fat-ha, its Dammah and its Kasrah and follows the
vowel didactical mark of preceded letter
If vowel didactical mark of preceeded letter, you would
convert the letter with this movement
And was said: “It must has Fat-ha if it comes with Alif and
after it has fat-ha without Alif
The letters have Dammah, Sukoon, and Kasrah these
movements you have known
If it is in lowest level it is sure heavy letter from Misafila
Don’t say it is light letter as its opposite. This is the truth
The Rule of Alef (أ)
It always follows to the preceded letter regarding
Tafkheem and Tarqeeq :
It is pronounced with Tafkheem after a Tafkheem letter as
in the following:
It is pronounced with Tarqeeq after a Tarqeeq letter, as
in the following
The Rule of Alef (أ)
The shape of tongue while pronouncing the
Tafkheem and Tarqeeq Alef(أ)
The concavity of the middle tongue and narrowing of throat
accompany the pronouncing of the tafkheem letter in contrast
to the Tarqeeq letter.
The Tafkheem
Alef
The Tarqeeq
Alef
All Arabs pronounce Laam in the glorious word of Allah (الله) with
Tafkheem if it is preceeded with Fat-ha or Dummah as following:
The Rule of Laam((ل
The Rule Of Laam( ل)
If the glorious word is preceded by Kasrah , The Laam letter
would be stay in its origin of the lightness as following:
The concavity of the middle tongue and narrowing of throat
accompany the pronunciation of the Tafkheem Laam letter in
contrast to the Tarqeeq laam.
The light Lam
The heavy Lam
The shape of tongue while pronouncing the
Tafkheem and Tarqeeq Laam (ل )
The Rule Of Raa’ (ر)
Raa’ will be pronounced with Tafkheem in (8) cases.
Raa’ will be pronounced with Tarqeeq in ( 4) cases.
It can be pronounced by either ways in ( 2 ) cases.
The Cases Of Tafkheem Of Raa’ Letter (ر)
If the letter of Raa’ has Fat-ha sign ,as in the following:
(رَمَضَانَ)
If the letter of Raa’ has Sukoon sign, and is preceded by
letter has Fat-ha, as in the following: (مَرْيَمَ)
If the letter of Raa’ has Sukoon sign, and is preceded
with Sakin letter expect Yaa’ letter and before them
letter with Fat-ha, as in the following: (وَاْلعَصْرْ)
If the Raa’ letter has Dummah, as in the following:
(كَفَرُواْ)
If Raa’ letter has a Sukoon sign and is preceded with letter having
Dummah sign, as in the following: (الْقُرْءَانَ)
If Raa’ letter has Sukoon sign and is preceded with letter having
sukoon and before them all letter having Dammah sign, as in the
following: (خُسْرْ)
If the Raa’ letter has Sukoon and it is preceded with conditional
Kasrah, whether pronounced (specified) or approximated,
If Raa’ letter has Sukoon sign and is preceded with letter has Kasrah
and is followed by Isil’ala letter without Kasrah sign in the same
word, as following: (وَإِرْصَادَا)(قِرْطَاسٍ) (فِرْقَةٍ)
The Cases Of Tafkheem Of Raa’ Letter (ر)
The Cases Of Tarqeeq The Raa’ Letter
If the Raa’ letter has kasrah sign, as in the following (كَرِيمٌ)
(رِيحٌ)
If the Raa’ letter has sukoon and is preceded with origin
kasrah and doesn’t follow with Istila’a letter, as in the
following: (فِرْعَوْنَ).
If the Raa’ letter has Sukoon sign and is preceded with
letter having sukoon sign and is not Isti’ala letter and
preceded with letter has kasrah sign, as in the following:
(حِجْرْ) (قَدِيْرْ)
If the Raa’ letter has sukoon sign and is preceded with soft
(lina) Yaa’ letter ,as in following (خَيْرْ) (لَا ضَيْرْ)
The Cases in which Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of the
Raa’ letter are allowed
If the Raa’ letter has sukoon sign and is preceded
with letter has Kasrah sign, and is followed by Isti’ala
letter with Kasrah. This in the case of joining or
stopping with Ar-Rawm at His saying:
In case of stopping at Raa’ letter with sukoon, it will
pronounced only with Tafkheem as the reason of tarqeeq
does not exist – the Isli’ala letter(qaf letterق) has kasrah sign.
If Raa’ with Sukoon and preceded with Istil’ala letter with
Sukoon and is preceded with letter has Kasrah in the Sukoon
stopping as :
Imam ibn Algazaree chose tafkheem in word {مِصْر} , and Tarqeeq
in taking into considartion the joining (Al-Wasel)(with the what is
after). However he chose the Tafkheem in taking into
consideration the stopping( at them).
In case of joining , Raa’ letter is pronounced with tafkheem
because it has Fathah sign in {مِصْر} ; but it is pronounced with
Tarqeeq in {القطر} because it has Kasrah sign.
The Cases in which Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of the
Raa’ letter are allowed
Light Raa’
Heavy Raa’
The shape of tongue while pronouncing the
Tafkheem and Tarqeeq Raa’ ر) )
The concavity of the middle tongue and narrowing of throat
accompany the pronunciation of the tafkheem Lam letter in
contrast to the tarqeeq Raa’.
The Itbaaq ( adhesion) and the Istifal (opening)
The Itbaaq (adhered) Letter According To
The Restriction Of Sound
The sound is restricted while pronouncing
closing letter between tongue and the roof
of mouth.
Zaa’ ظ
The Closed Letter According To The Restriction Of Sound
Istifal
and opened
letter as in Qafق
Isti’ala and
opened letter
as in Kafك
The sound of closing letter is not restricted between tongue and roof of mouth
Comparing between the closing and opening
(Isti’ala and Istifal)
Kafك
Isti’ala and opened
letter
Qafق
Istifal and opened
letter
Zaa’ظ
Isti’ala and
closed letter
Rule
The seven Isti’ala letters are two parts:
Is heavier than
Is heavier than
Isti’ala and closed letters: They are four letters (ص ، ض ، ط ، ظ).
Isti’ala and opened letters: They are three letters: (غ ، خ ، ق).
The closed Isti’ala letter is heavier than the opened Isti’ala letter as
in following:
Also
is heavier than
Rule
The Characteristics without Opposite
The whistle
It is sharpness in the letter and sound
occurs from its passing in narrow
channel. The whistle letters are three:
الصاد ، السين ، الزاي
Zai ,Seen , Saad (ص، س،ز )
Qalqalah
Linguistic definition: It is a
turbulence movement.
The Arabs say Taqalqal Al qedr it
means the pot is vibrating
The Characteristics without Opposite
Applied definition: It is pronouncition of
the Qalaqalh letter – in case of being
Sakin- by separation between the two
organs of articulating points without any
movement of three signs.
Its five letters are collected in قٌطْبٌ جَدّ
The Characteristics without Opposite
The Difference Between Sakin, Qalqelah, And Mutahark Letters
How it is
articulated
Its articulation is
accompanied with
Sakin letter
By collision
Nothing
Qalqlah letter
By separation
Nothing
Mutahark letter
By separation
Movement
Baa’ Sakinah
(non-vowel)
without Qalqalah (is
merged) it is
articulated by
collision of two lips
Baa’ Sakinah
with Qalqalah it
is articulated by
the separation of
two lips but not
the two jaws
Mutahark Baa’
(with Fat-ha) it is
articulated by
separation of lips
and jaws
The Difference Between Sakin, Qalqalah, And Mutahark Letters
The Levels Of Qalqalah
The Qalqalah has two levels :
The Greater Qalqalah: It is stopping on the Qalqalah
letter as in the following:
The Levels Of Qalqalah
The Lesser Qalqalah: If the Qalqalah letter is in the middle of
the word or sentences as in the following:
Note (1)
If the letter of Qalqalah letters is merged with its similar or
homogenous letter , it will not be pronounced with Qalqalah. if
it is pronounced with Qalqalah, It will not be merged ( which is
incorrect) as in the following:
In stopping at the Qalqalah letter with Shaddah (doubled
letter), as in the following:
The Qalqalah must be done while pronouncing the
second letter of both; because the first is merged, and it
is articulated by collision between two component of
articulating point (organ). So there is no need to emphasis
that qalqalah must be apparent on the letter with shaddah.
The Qalqalah in: as Qalqalah in:
Note (2)
Mistakes occur upon applying Qalqalah
Mixing Its sound with the sound of one of the three
movements( harakat) , as in the following:
Ending Its sound with Hamza ,as in the following:
Stretching Its sound more than needed , as in the
following:
separating between The sound of Qalqalah letter and the
following letter as in the following:
The soften letter
This feature given to the Sakin Waaw(و) and Yaa’ (ي ) letters that
are preceded by a letter having Fat-ha sign. They are called as
such because they are easily passed in their articulating point, as
in following:
The Characteristics without Opposite
The Deviation
It is the drifting of the sound of the letter due to its
incomplete running caused by the tongue blocking its
path . Its letters are Laam (ل) and Raa’ (ر) .
The Characteristics without Opposite
The Deviation Of Laam(ل)
Laam letter
Front view of the tongue shape whilw
pronouncing the Laam letter
Laam letter
The Laam sound is deviated
towards the both edges of
tongue because the tip of
tongue blocks the path of Laam
The Deviation Of Laam(ل)
Raa’ letter
In contrast to laam letter, the sound of
Raa’ letter is deviated from the edges of tip
tongue to its middle
The Deviation Of Raa’(ر)
Raa’ letter
Front view of the tongue shape
while pronouncing the Raa’
letter
The Deviation Of Raa’(ر)
Comparison Between The Deviation Of Laam
And Raa’
Raa’ letter
Laam letter
200
5- Repetition
The light trilling of the tip of the
tongue when pronouncing the Raa’
due to the narrowing of its
articulation point. The reciter
should be careful not to exaggerate
the repetition of Raa’ which would
lead to the articulation of more
than one Raa’.
The Characteristics without Opposite
201
6- Spreading around
It is the spreading around of the
sound of sheen (ش ) starting from its
articulation point until it collides with
the inner plates of the top and lower
teeth.
The Characteristics without Opposite
202
7- lengthening
It is the pushing of the
tongue while pronouncing
Daad ( ض) from the back of
the tongue to its front until
the top of the tongue touches
the gum line of the two top
front incisors. This is due to
the influence of the
compression
of sound behind the tongue.
Touch without stress
The area of stress
The Characteristics without Opposite
203
8- Gunnah Nasalization
as a characteristic
It is a characteristic of noon and
meem in all of their cases
(whether they are Sakin,
Mutahark, merged , clear or
hidden). But its length varies
according to the position of the
two letters. Gunnah
(Nasalization) will be explained
in the research of the length of
nasalization in page 307.

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