Most common mistakes when
pronouncing the Arabic letters
Common Mistakes when pronouncing Alef
Insufficient opening of the mouth when pronouncing Alef as in {مُوسًى}
Mixing its sound with the sound of Yaa’ so that it would sound like Alef with
Imaalah , as in {ملٰك}
Mixing its sound with sound of Waaw, as in {خلٰدين} {فَطَالَ}
Pronouncing it with Tafkheem in positions of Tarqeq, as in {النَّهَار} {النَّار}
{البَــــٰطِلُ}
Pronouncing it with Tarqeeq in positions of Tafkheem, as in {غآئِبةٍ}
{خلٰدين}
Mixing its sound with sound of gunnah, as in {الرَّحْمَــــٰن} {النَّاس}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing The Madd
Waaw
Insufficiently rounding the two lips when pronouncing it , as in {تَعْمَلُونَ}
Exaggeration in pressing on the lips when pronouncing it , as in {يَقُولُونَ}
Mixing its sound with partially Alef sound , as in {كَانُواْ}
Mixing its sund with partially Yaa’ sound , as in {يُوقِنُونَ}
Mixing its sound with sound of gunnah, as in {الظــــٰلِمُون}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing The Madd
Yaa’
Mixing its sound with partially Alef Sound due to insufficiency.
lifting the middle of the tongue , as in {نَستَعِين}
Exaggeration in pressing on the middle of the toungue when
pronouncing it as in {الْمُسْتَقِيم}
Mixing its sound with sound of gunnah, as in {الْعــٰلمين}
Common mistakes when pronouncing
Throat Letters
The letter
Its common mistakes
Pronouncing it with Tafkeem , as in (أصَٰبِعهمْ)
2-Pronouncing its with Tasheel (easiness) in wrong
positions as in (يًــــٰأًيها)
3-Weakly pronouncing Hamza when stopping at it as in
(السَمآء)
هـــ
Pronouncing it with Tafkeem, as in (الله) (النهار)
2-Weakly pronouncing due to the excessive space
between the two acoustic tendons, as in(اهدنا)
3-Not clearly pronouncing it when it occurs next to
Haa’ or حاء, as in (جِبَاهُهم) (وَسِّبحْهُ ليلاً)
4-Weakly pronouncing Hamza when stopping at it as
(مَالٍيَهْ)
Common mistakes when pronouncing Throat
Letters
The letter
Its common mistakes
Pronouncing it with a sound like Alif with Tafkeem , as
in {نَعْبُدُ}
Cutting off its sound when it is Sakin, as in{يَعْمًلُون}2-
Pronouncing it with Tafkeem, as in{عَصَوْا}3-
Pronouncing it like Hamza, as in{وَ اللهُ يَعْلَمُ وَ أَنتُمْ لا4-
تَعْلَمُونَ}
Non-Arabs pronounce it like Haa’ or خاء, as in{الْحَمْدُ}
2-Weakly applying its Hams(whistle) characteristic, as
in{الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ}

3-Not clearly pronouncing it especially when it occurs
next to عين letter, as in { فَاصْفَح عَنْهُم}
Common mistakes when pronouncing
Throat Letters
The letter
Its common mistakes
غ
Mixing its sound with sound of Qaf letter, as in { غَيرِ
الْمَغضوبِ}
Merging it into Qaf letter, as in {لا تَزِغْ قُلُوبَنا}
Altering it toخاء letter, as in{يَغْشَىٰ}
Pronouncing it with Qalqalh, as in
{ غَيرِ الْمَغضوبِ}
Exaggeratingly pronouncing it with Tafkeem when it
has kasrah on it, as in {مِنْ غِلٍّ}
Not pronouncing it with Tafkeem, as in{خَٰلِدِينَ}
Exaggeratingly pronouncing it with Tafkeem when it
has kasrah on it, as in{وَ خِيفَةً}
Common mistakes when pronouncing
Qaf (ق)
Pronouncing it like Kaf letter, as in { قَالُوا}
Exaggerating in weakening its Tafkeem chractaristic , in case of having
kasrah , changing its sound to sound of Kaf letter ,as in { وَ بِالحَقِّ أنزَلنَٰه وَ
بِالحَقِّ نَزَلَ}
Turning it to G letter, as in { قَلِيلٌ}
Mixing its sound with sound of letter Gain (غ), as in {الْقَدْرِ}
Pronouncing it with Hams (whisper) , as in { قَالُوا}
Common mistakes when pronouncing Kaf (ك)
Exaggeratingly pronouncing it with Hams when it is Mutahark
( has Fatiha , Kasrah or Dammah on it) , as in {فَكَانُوا} {كُوِرَتْ}
Not applying its Hams characteristic especially when it is sakin,
as in {ذِكْرَكَ} { يَكْتُبُونَ} { صَدْرَكَ} {وِزْرَكَ}
Pronouncing it like Qaf letter , as in{ وَ تَرَكُوكَ قآئِمًا} { وَإذَا السَّمَآءُ
كُشِطَتْ}
Common mistakes when pronouncing Jeem(ج)
Pronouncing it with Raqawah (weakness)
characteristic, as in {جَعَلُوا} {وَ جَنَّةٍ}
Mixing its sound with sound of letter Dal, as in {يَجْمَعُونَ}
Mixing its sound with sound of letter Sheen, as
in{الْمُجَٰهدِينَ}
turning it to Yaa letter, as in{المَسْجِدِ}
Turning it to G letter, as in{الحَجُّ}
Common mistakes when pronouncing letter
Sheen
Weakly depending on its makhraj (point of articulation) which
leads to its weak sound, as in {اشْتَرَوْا}
Trapping its sound in the mouth as a result od not separating
the two jaws slightly. This prevents the sound from getting out,
as in{اشْتَرَوْا}
Because of moving its makraj slightly from the middle of the
tongue, its sound is produced mixed with sound of seen letter,
as in {مِنَ الشَّيطنٰ }
Pronouncing it with tafkeem, if it occurs next to letter with
tafkeem, as in{شَطَطًا}
Common mistakes when pronouncing non Madd Yaa’
Excessive pressing in the middle of the tongue, especially
when it has shaddah, when pronouncing non madd yaa’,
as in {أَيْنَمَا} {إِيَّاكَ}
Mixing its sound with sound of gunnah, as in {الدُّنْيَا}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing Daad(ض)
Turning it to Dhaa’(ظ), as in {ضَل}
Turning it to Daal(د), as in {تُفِيضُونَ}
Producing it without sound, falsely applying its
lengthening characteristic, as in {الضَّآلِّين}
Pronouncing t with Qalqalh, as in {وَ قَضْبًا}
Pronouncing it with Gunnah, as in {فَضْلُ}
Merging it with its following letter, as in {اضْطُرَّ} {عَرَّضْتُم}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing Laam(ل )
Pronouncing Laam with Tafkheem, when it should be
pronounced with Tarqeeq , as in {اللَطيف}
Pronouncing Laam with Tarqeeq when it should be pronounced
with Tafkheem , as in {مِنَ اللــه}
Merging Laam with the letter that follows , as in
{أَنزَلْــــنــٰه} {وَ لاَ تُحَمِّلْنَا}
Merging Al-Laam Al – Qamareeyah ( Lunar Laam) with Jeem
letter , as in {الْجِبَال}
Pronouncing Laam With Ghunnah sound , as in {بِاْللهِ}
Common mistakes when pronouncing Noon (ن)
Pronouncing Noon without full Gunnah sound
upon stopping at it, as in {نَسْتَعِيـنُ }
Pronouncing Noon with long Gunnah sound upon
stopping at it as in the previous example.
Pronouncing Noon with Qalqalah when it is Sakin,
as in {أَنْـعَمْتَ}.
Pronouncing Noon with Tafkheem , as in {النَّـــارَ} .
Pronouncing Gunnah of Noon with whining sound ,
as in {مَنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَ النَّاسِ}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing Raa’(ر)
Mispronouncing Raa’ as Ghain (غ)Letter or pronouncing it
with full-mouth sound, as in {الرَّحْمَــٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ} .
Pronouncing Raa’ with Tafkheem in positions of Tarqeeq ,
or pronouncing it with Tarqeeq in positions of Tafkheem , as
in {مُذَكِرٌ} {مَرْيَمْ}.
Repeating Raa’ sound in an exaggerated manner when it is
mushaddad ( i.e. has a shaddah on it) or Sakin , as in {الرَّزَّاقُ}
{ارْجِعُواْ} .
Pronouncing Raa’ strongly through narrow sound path, as in
{الرَّحْمَــٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ} .
Rounding lips when pronouncing Raa’, as in {الرَّحْمَــٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ}
Hiding Raa’ sound when it is sakin for waqf( stopping) as in
{خُسْرٍ} {السِّحْرَ}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing Letters Taa’(ط) ,
Daal(د) & Ta(ت)
Letter
Its common mistakes
Taa’ ( طـ )
Saying Taa’ with Hams, as in {فَطَالَ}
Pronouncing Taa’ with Tarqeeq , as in{طِبَاقًا}
Daal ( د )
Mixing sound of letter Daal ( د) with sound of letter Taa’ (ت ), as in{الدِّينِ}
Pronouncing Daal with Tafkheem, as in {صُدُورِ}
Taa’ ) ت)
Exaggeratingly pronouncing Taa’ ( ت ) with Hams when it is Mutahrek, as
in {تَتَوَفَّــــٰهُمُ} .
Pronouncing Taa’ with Tafkheem, as in {تَطْمَئِنُّ} .
Not Pronouncing Taa’ with Hams especially when Taa’ is sakin ,as
in{تَتَمارَى} {تَتْرَا}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing
Whistle (As-safeer) Letters (س،ص،ز)
Weakening their whistle (Safeer) feature, as in{الصَّــــــٰلِحِينَ} {المَسْجِدِ}
{يَزَّكى}
Using the lower lip when articulating As-safeer letters ,as in
{الصَّــــــٰلِحِينَ} {يَزَّكى}
Rounding lips when pronouncing Saad (ص ) , as in {الصَّــــــٰلِحِينَ}
Pronouncing Saad ( ص) with Tarqeeq , as in {المَصِيرُ}
Pronouncing Seen (س ) with Tafkheem, as in{يَسْطُرُونَ}
Mixing the sound of Seen ( س) with the sound of Zaay ( ز ) , as in
{وَ اسْجُدْ} {المَسْجُور} {رِجْسٌ}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing
Al-lathaweeyah ( Alveolar Dental) Letters(ث،ذ،ظ)
Pushing the tip of the tongue out too much than the required limit.
Pressing the tip of the tongue behind the front teeth or against the
gum, believing that they are articulated from gum .
Mispronouncing Zaa’( ظ ) as Saad (ص) mixed with the sound of
zaay (ز),as in{الظَّـــــٰلِمِينَ}
Replacing Zhaal (ذ ) with Zaay (ز), as in,{وَ الذَاكِرِينَ
Replacing Thaa’ (ث ) with Seen (س) or Taa (ت ) , as in{فَكَثَّرَكُمْ}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing
Faa’(ف)
Disappearance of Faa’ sound because of weakly applying its Hams
feature ,as in {فَكَثَرَكُمْ} {تَفْعَلُونَ}
Mispronouncing Faa’ as (V) sound , as in {وَ الضَّفَادِعَ}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing
Non Maad Waaw(و)
Pronouncing Waaw with Tafkheem if it occurred next to
Tafkheem letter, as in {وَ اللهُ}
Not rounding lips completely when pronouncing Waaw , as in{وَ
كَانَ}
pressing on the lips excessively , especially when Waaw is
mushadad causing noise due to the narrowing of makhraj ( point of
articulation) , as in {قَوَّامِينَ} {خَوَّانًا}
Common Mistakes When Pronouncing
Baa’ (ب)& Meem(م)
Letter
Its common mistakes
Baa’ (ب)
Pronouncing Baa’ with Hams, as in{بِسْمِ اللهِ}
Pronouncing Baa’ with Tafkeem if it occurred next to Tafkheem letter,
as in {البـــٰطِلُ}
Not pronouncing Baa’ with Qalqalah when it is sakin , as in{يُبْصِرُونَ}
Meem (م)
Cutting the sound of Meen upon stopping at it which leads its sound to
be similar to Baa’ sound , as in{الرَّحِيم}
Pronouncing Meem with Tafkhim if it occurred next to Tafkheem letter
, as in {مَخمَصَةٍ}
pronouncing Meem with Qalqalah when it is sakin, as in {يَمْتَرُونَ}
{ أَنْعَمْتَ}
The Conjunction Letters
Introduction: definition of Idghaam (merging)
Cases of conjunction letters : 1- Mutamaathilan ( the Two Alike)
2-Mutajaanisan ( the Two Similar)
3- Mutaqaariban ( The Two Close)
4- Mutaba’adan ( The Two Far)
Al-Idghaam
Al Idghaam (Ligustically ) : Insertion , Merging
Arabs say : Adghamtu al-leegam fii fam al-faras
I insert the harness into the mouth of the horse.
أدغمتُ اللجام في فم الفرس
They say also: Adghamu as-seif fii ghimdhi
أدغمتُ السيف في غمده
I insert the sword into its scabbard.
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Al-Idghaam
Its applied definition : inserting a consonant ( sakin) letter
into a following Mutaharek (voweled) ,so that the two
letters become one emphasized ( mushadad) letter of the
second type ,( i.e. pronounced from the point of
articulation of the second letter), as in
{وَلْيَكْتُب بَّينَكُم} {هَمَّت طَّآئِفَـتَانِ}
1- Mutamaathilan ( The Two Alike) Letters
They are two letters that have the same characteristics and point
of articulation.
If two mutamaathilan letters meet , the first one is non- maad and
sakin, then Idghaam is must , as in
In case that the first letter is mutaharek (voweled) or maad letter ,
then there is no Idghaam , as in
2- Mutajaanisan ( The Two Similar) Letters
They are the two letters that have the same point of articulation
but different characteristics.
If two mutajaanisan letters meet together- in one of the
following cases- where the first one is sakin, then Idghaam is
must , as in {قَد تَبَيَّنَ}
Idghaam (merging) of two mutajaanisan letters is limited to (8)
cases only:
The Eight Cases Of Merging Two Similar Letters
1-merge Zaal (ز)With Ẓaa’(ظ) as in: {إذ ظَّلَمْتُم} (إظَّلَمْتُمْ)
2-merge Daal (د)With Ta(ت) as in: {قَد تَّبَيَّنَ} (قَتَّبَيَّن)
3-merge Ta (ت) With Daal(د) as in: { أَثْقَلَت دَّعَوَا} (أَثْقَلَدَّعَوَا)
4- Merge Ta (ت)With Taa’ (ط)as in: {فَأّمَنَت طَّآئِفَةً} (فَآمَنَطَّآئِفَةً)
Read as
Read as
Read as
Read as
2- Mutajaanisan ( The Two Similar) Letters
The Eight Cases Of Merging Two Similar Letters
5-Merge laam(ل) with raa’(ر) (according to Al-Faraa’ school of thought),
as in:
{قل رَّبِّ} ( قُـرَّبِّ)
But according to Sibawayh , this case is included under the rule of the
two similar letters in which they must be merged .
Read as
2- Mutajaanisan ( The Two Similar) Letters
The Eight Cases Of Merging Two Similar Letters
6-Merge thaa’ (ث) with zaal (ذ) as in: {يَلْهَث ذَࢭلِكَ}
(يَلْهَذَّالِك)
Though being two homogeneous letters, some Reciters pronounce these
two letters clearly while others merge the first with the next letter.
According to the narration of Hafs from Shatebya way, Hafs only merges
these two letters.
According to the narration of Hafs from Al-taybiaa way, Hafs pronounces
and merges these two letters.
Read as
2- Mutajaanisan ( The Two Similar) Letters
The Eight Cases Of Merging Two Similar Letters
7- Merge baa’(ب) with meem (م) as in: {ارْكَب مَّعَنَا} (ارْكَمَّعَنَا)
Though being two homogeneous letters, some Reciters pronounce these
two letters clearly while others merge the first with the next letter.
According to the narration of Hafs from Shatebya way, Hafs only merges
these two letters.
According to the narration of Hafs from Al-taybiaa way, Hafs pronounces
and merges these two letters.
Read as
2- Mutajaanisan ( The Two Similar) Letters
The Eight Cases Of Merging Two Similar Letters
8- Merge taa’(ط) with ta(ت) which is called incomplete idghaam (merging)
because the strong letter cannot be completely merged into the weak one.
In the past, Arabs used to merge Sakin taa’(ط) with ta(ت) while keeping its
(taa’ط ) the Itbaaq ( adhesion) characteristic i.e. by adhering the tongue to
the upper palate while pronouncing non qalqalah Taa’(ط) then opening it
during the pronunciation of mutahark ta(ت), as in:
{أَحَطتُ} { بَسَطتَ}{فَرَّطتُمْ} {فَرَّطتُ}
2- Mutajaanisan ( The Two Similar) Letters
They are two letters which are close to each other in
points of articulation and in characteristics ,as in:
{نَخْلُقكُّم} {فَقَدْ ضَلَّ} {كَذَّبَتْ ثَمُودُ}
3-Mutaqaariban ( The Two Close) letters
Points Of Agreement Regarding The Idghaam
(Merging) Of The Two Close Letters
1- Merging of laam(ل) into raa’(ر) , and this is according to Sibawayh
(school of thought) as in:
{وَقُل رَّبِّ} (وَقُرَّبِّ)
because he considers this from obligatory idghaam
Read as
2-Merging of qaf (ق) into kaf (ك) in His Saying { أَلَمْ نَخْلُقكُّم}[Surat
AL-Mursalat ] Reciters agreed upon merging qaf into kaf . However , they disagreed
upon other points:
Most of them agreed upon considering it a pure complete Idghaam with
full tashdeed. While Makkai bin Abi Talib and Abu Bakr bin Mehran
consider it as incomplete Idghaam because of the existance Istalaa’
(Elevation) feature.
According to the narration of Hafs from the ways of Al-Shatebya and
Al-taybiaa , this idghaam is a complete one. And its sign is writing qaf (ق)
without sukoon sign and adding shaddah(ك) sign to kaf.
Points Of Agreement Regarding The Idghaam
(Merging) Of The Two Close Letters
3-(merging of ) solar laam into the (13) letters. This rule will be
discussed in details in the section of definite laam (page 251).
4-(Mwerging of) Noon Sakin and Tanween( Nunation) into the
letters of the word: لَمْ يَرْو . This rule will be discussed in details
later (page 280).
Points Of Agreement Regarding The Idghaam
(Merging) Of The Two Close Letters
These points are searched in the SCIENCE OF
RECITATIONS
For example:
– The merging of Daal (د)into Daad(ض), as in:{ فَقَدْ ضَلَ}
– The merging of Ta’(ت) into thaa’(ث), as in: {كَذَبّتْ ثَمُودُ}
However, in the narration of Hafs from Asim , these letters
are pronounced clearly
Points Of Disagreement Regarding The Idghaam
(Merging) Of The Two Close Letters
4-Mutaba’adan ( The Two Far)
They are two letters which have far articulation points as well as
total different characteristics , as in:
{مَنْ ءَامَنَ} {أَنْعَمْتَ}
{يُؤْمِنُونَ} {تَشْكُرُونَ}
They are pronounced clearly in all narrations of recitations.
Benefit (1)
The Complete Idghaam in Holy Quran is represented by
writing the first letter without sukoon sign and adding
shaddah to the next letter, as in:
{يَدْرِككُّم} {عَصَواْ وَّ كَانُواْ} {ارْكَب مَّعَنَا}
{وَ قُل رَّب} { أَلّمْ نَخْلُقكُّم} {السَّمَآءُ}
Benefit (2)
Incomplete Idghaam in Holy Quran is represented by
writing the first letter without sukoon sign and without
adding shaddah to the next letter, as in:
{أَحَطتُ} {بَسَطتَ}{فَرَّطتُم}{فَرَّطتُ}
Laam Of Definition ( Laam At-ta’reef)
It is laam having sukoon in it. Arabs uses this laam before nouns
to define them. Laam of definition is preceded by Connecting
Hamza with Fatiha on it, as in { الْجِبَالُ} { السَّمَآءُ}
The Lunar Laam (Al-laam
Al-Qamariyah)
Arabs pronounce the laam of definition ( laam at-ta’reef) clearly
when it is followed by (14) letters . Sheik Soliyman Al-Jamzory
(lived in 1198 H.) collected these letters in (this statement) : اِبْغِ حَجَّكَ
وَ خَفْ عَقِمَهُ . The laam is pronounced clearly due to the far distance
between its Makhraj (point of articulation) and the Makhraj of
these letters, as in {الْجِبَال} {الْقَمَرُ} {الأرض}{الْحَجِّ}
The Solar Laam ( Al-laam
Ash-Shamseeyah)
Arabs merge the laam of definition into (14) (other) letters
whose makhraj close to the makhraj of Laam, except laam
which is considered from the two alike letters, as in
{و الشَّمْسِ} {السَّمآء} {الدَّاعِ} {الَّيْلَ}
Sheik Al-Jamzory collected these (14) letters at the
beginning of the word of this poetic line:
طِبْ ثُمَّ صِلْ رِحْمًا تَفُزْ ضِفْ ذَا نِعَمْ دَعْ سُوءَ ظَنٍ زُرْ شَرِيفًا لِلْكَرَمْ
Benefit 1
The sign of clearly pronouncing ” laam of definition” in the Quran
is to put head part of letter khaa letter without dot above
laam, as in:
The sign of the Idgham of laam of definition in the Quran is to
write laam without sukoon sign and to add shaddah on the next
letter, like :{ وَ الشَّمْسِ} {السَّمآءُ} {الدَّاعِ}

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