Characteristics Of The Arabic Letters

Characteristics Of The Arabic Letters
Meaning of characteristics of Arabic letters and stating their types.
Hams (whisper) and Jahr (apparent/voiced).
Shiddah (strength),Bayneeya (In-between) and Rakhaawa
(weakness).
Measurement of the times of the correct letters.
Istilaa’ (Elevated) and Istifaal (lowered).
Levels of Tafkheem of the Istelaa’ Elevated letters.
The letters which are pronounced with tafkheem in some cases (Alef,
Laam and Raa’).
Itbaaq (adhesion) and Infitaah (open).
Characteristics of the Arabic letters which have no opposite.
Distribution of the characteristics on Arabic letters.
Meaning Of Characteristics Of Arabic Letters
Characteristics of Arabic letters –in terms of the science
of Tajweed- are those features, if not applied, the sound
of the letter will be affected. These characteristics are
like Hams (whispered) and Jahr (apparent), Istalaa’
(Elevated) and Istifaal (lowered) and others. They are
different from the characteristics given to letter
according to their space (taken by them) in the mouth
Characteristics With Opposites
1. Hams (whispered) and Jahr (apparent/voiced).
2. Shiddah (strength), Rakhaawa (weakness) and
Bayneeya (in-between)
3. Istalaa’ (Elevation) and Istifaal (lowering).
4. Itbaaq (adhesion) and Infitaah (opening).
The Idhlaaq (fluency, ease of exit) and Ismaat (restraint)
are two Characteristics related to the science of Arabic
morphology; and they do not affect the pronunciation (of
letters).
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Characteristics Without Opposites
Safeer (whistle).
Qalqalah (echoing / bouncing)/.
Leen (softness).
Inhiraaf (drifting).
Takreer (repetition).
Tafsh’shee (diffusion/ spreading
around).
Istitaalah (lengthening).
Ghunnah (nasalization).
Hams (Whispered) And Jahr (Apparent/ Voiced)
The Arabic letters in terms of expulsion and
blockage of breath is divided into :
Mahmusah
(articulated with
Hams)
(سَكَـتَ فَحَثَّهُ شَخْصٌ).
Majhurah
(articulated with
Jahr)
(the rest of letters).
Hams (whispered)
Weakness of the sound
as a result of continuation
of breath (whispering,
expulsion of air) and the
non vibration of vocal
cords during the
pronunciation of the letter.
For example:
articulation of
Sheen
A real photo of a
vocal cord in the
state of Hams
(whispered).
Jahr (opposite of Hams)
Clearness of sound due to
closure and vibration of the
vocal cords as well as
imprisonment of the much of
the running breath.
A real photo of
vocal cord in the
state of Jahr
(voiced).
The Vocal Cords In The State Of Both Of Hams
And Jahr
position of Vocal cord
during pronunciation of Seen
with Hams.
position of Vocal cords
during of
pronunciation of Zaai
with Jahr.
The Arabic letter in terms of passing the sound in the
articulation
The characteristic of
Shiddah is found in
the following letters (
أَجد قط بكت) .
The characteristic of
Bayneeya is found in
the following letters (ل
ن ع م ر ) .
The characteristic of
Rakhaawa is found in
(the rest of letters).
Shiddah (strength), Rakhaawa (Weakness) and
Bayeeya (in-between)
Shiddah (Strength)
stoppage of the sound upon
pronunciation of the letter
due to blockage of the
articulation point (makhraij)
Jeem
Letters of the Shiddah( strength) (are
divided in terms of Hams and Jahr into)
The Hams
(whispered) letters are
( ك ت )
The Jahr (voiced)
letters are
(قطب جد + Hamza).
Releasement of The Sound After Holding It Upon
Pronunciation Of Shiddah (strong) & Jahr
(voiced) Letters
The pressure of the blocked sound and its releasement
determine the features of the sound.
Jeem during the
releasement the sound.
Jeem after releasing
the sound.
Releasement Of Breath After Holding The Sound
Upon Pronunciation Of Shiddah (strong) & Hams
(whispered) Letters
Note: Al-shiddah and Al-hams in Kaaf(ك) and Ta’(ت) are
strong at the first and whispered at the end.
Releasing the breath after holding sound upon pronunciation of strong whispered
letters in Kaaf(ك) and Ta’(ت)
Kaaf after releasing
breath
Kaaf when holding breath
Rakhaawa (Weakness)
The complete running of sound upon pronunciation of the
soft letter in its articulation point .
Sheen
Bayneeya (In-between)
It is the partial running of sound in the articulation
point of the letter due to its incomplete closure.
characteristic of Bayneeya (in-between) in Laam
The partial running of The sound of the Laam is due to the
interception of the tip of the tongue to its exit path.
Laam
A front view of mouth during pronunciation
of Laam
Characteristic Of Bayneeya (In-between) In Raa’
A front view of mouth upon pronunciation of Raa’
showing the gap at the end of the tip of the tongue
which allow the passage of the sound.
Raa’
The partial running of The sound of the Raa’ is due to the
interception of most of the tip of the tongue area to its exit path.
The characteristic of Bayneeya (in-between) in
Meem and Noon
The partial running of the sound upon pronunciation of
Meem and Noon is because of the opening of the nasal
cavity and the closure of the oral cavity.
Noon
Meem
The partial running of the sound upon pronunciation of A’yn
is because of turning back of the Epiglottis.
The Characteristic Of Bayneeya (In-between) In
A’yn
The times of the Mutahark letters
The times of the Mutahark letters are equal as long as the recitement
is in one speed.
The time of the letter with Fathah = the time of letter with dammah = the time of
the letter with kasrah.
( كُــتِــبَ ) ( يَعِظُكُمْ ) (سُـئِــلَتْ)
Time Errors Occur During The Pronunciation Of
The Mutahark Letters
1- Make the time of one of the Mutahark letter longer
than the time Mutahark letters next to it; the scholars
named this mistake Elongation or Input, like:
( فَمَن يَعْمَلْ ) wrongly pronounced (فَمَان يَعْمَلْ ) .
( كُنتُمْ ) wrongly pronounced (كُونتُمْ ) .
( إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ) wrongly pronounced ( إِينَّ الَّذِينَ ) .
Times errors occur during the pronunciation of the
Mutahark letters
Make one of the time of one of the Mutahark letter
shorter than the time Mutahark letters next to it;
the scholars named this mistake Embezzlement, like:
( يَأْمُرُكُمْ ) ( خَلَقَكُمْ ) ( يًعِدُكُمُ )
Measuring the times of the correct Sakin letters
1- The time of a soft letter is longer than the time of the
in-between letter.
2- The time of the in-between letter is longer than the time of
strong letter.
3- Measure the time of the correct sakin letters commensurate
with the reading speed whether fast, slow and medium speed.
Measure the time of the correct letters which carries Sukoon
commensurates with the reading speed.

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