The Science of Tajweed & The Definition Of Tajweed

The Science of Tajweed
The Definition Of Tajweed
Mistakes Made When Reciting The Noble Quran
Ruling On Learning And Applying Tajweed Rules.
Rule Of Reciting The Holy Quran In Musical
Tunes.
Paces Of Recitation.
The Definition of Tajweed:
The linguistic meaning of Tajweed is proficiency or doing something
well (at-Tahseen).
The verb form Tajweed(n) is Jawad(past)[جَود], ujawed(present)[يجود] which means: to beautify
As for its applied definition: it is the science dealing with the correct
pronunciation of Arabic letters through recognizing their points of
articulation, their essential and occasional qualities, and the rules
associated with them.
In his book An-Nashr, Imam Bin al-Jazari wrote: “I do not know a
reason (method) to attain the highest level of accuracy and
improvement (Tajweed), and to reach the end of correction and
direction like exercising the tongues, and repeating the word
received from the mouth of a perfect reciter… Tajweed neither
means chewing of the letters, pronouncing the letter from the back
of the throat, lowering the jaw, vibrating the voice, overly
elongating the Shaddah (doubling the sound of a
letter),fragmenting the Madd(prolongation)=
The Definition of Tajweed:
The Definition of Tajweed:
= nor buzzing the Ghunnah (Nasalized pronunciation of the letter), restricting the
letter Raa’ (Arabic letter); since such recitation is detestable and dismissed by the
hearts and ears. Instead, the accepted recitation is that the easy, harmonious,
sweet and nice one. It is the one without fastidiousness, arbitrariness, pretention
or mannerism. And It does not characterize by irrelevance to Arabs natures and
(their) Eloquent speech in any method of recitation and performance.”
The Most Important Fields Of The Science Of
Tajweed:
Points of articulation of Arabic letters.
Essential characteristics of each letter.
Occasional characteristics; and the most significant among them are:
Idghaam (merging) two letters which are similar and homogenous.
Rules of Laam shammsiya (solar laam) and Laam qamarya
(lunar laam).
Rules of Meem Sakinah
Rules of Noon Sakinah and Tanween
Rules of Madd( prolongation) and shortening
Al-lahan (Mistake) in the Recitation of the Glorious Quran
Al-lahan linguistically is the deviation from correctness.
its applied definition is the mistake in the recitation of the
Glorious Quran.
It is has two types:
∙ 1– Obvious and clear mistake.
∙ 2– Obscured and hidden mistake.
1- Obvious and clear mistake: it is a mistake that occurs in the
pronunciation of the word and affects the meaning syntactically
or grammatically. For example,
(أنعمتُ عليهم) Instead of (أنعمتَ عليهم)
(فكسركم) Instead of (فكثركم)
(عصى)instead of ((عسى
(بسم اللهُ الرحمنَ الرحيم) instead of (بسم اللهِ الرحمنِ
الرحيم)
Al-lahan (Mistake) in the Recitation of the Glorious Quran
The Mistake in the Recitation of the Glorious Quran.
2- Obscured and hidden mistake: it is a mistake that occurs in the
pronunciation of the word and affects the perfection of its
characteristics, yet it isn’t a mistake which affects the meaning
syntactically or grammatically. For example:
(سوء العذاب) leaving or neglecting the extra madd in waaw.
أنفسكم) ) by pronouncing Noon clearly (i.e. applying Izhaar
characteristic instead of Al-Ikhfaa characteristic).
Recitation should be free from both types of mistakes.
The opinions of scholars, in respect of this matter, are either hardline or
permissive. To be accurate, we have to differentiate between:
1- Articulation points of letters (Makharij(:
Abidance by them is obligatory, and any mistake in them is absolutely forbidden
(haram). For example, changing حاء)) in the word (الرحمن) to خاء) ) or (هاء)
Ruling on learning and applying Tajweed rules
2-Characteristics of letters (sifaat): they are divided into two categories:
A) Characteristics in which any mistake affects the core of the letter:
Abidance by them is obligatory, and any mistake in them is absolutely
forbidden, such as articulating (س) of the word (عسى) as heavy, articulating
(ص) of the word (عصى) as light, articulating(ط) of the word(الطلاق) as light,
and articulating(ت) of the word (التلاق) as heavy.
Ruling on learning and applying Tajweed rules
Ruling on learning and applying Tajweed rules
B) Characteristics that beautifies the recitation:
For example: pronouncing Raa with fathah and with dhamma with tarqiq (light) like
inالرحمن الرحيم) ), not applying the whisper ( الهمس ) and the spreading around
( التفشي) features well, not prolonging the timing of the soft letter (الرخاوة )when it
has sukoon. And regarding all what the scholars refer to as the hidden mistake, we have
to differentiate between two cases:
Ruling on learning and applying Tajweed rules
1-In case of teaching orally:
Abidance by them is obligatory, and any mistake in them is
forbidden (haram) ; because it is considered as a lie in the
narration.
2-In case of the usual recitation: we have to differentiate
between two cases:
1- A person who masters and has knowledge of Tajweed rules: it
is considered a flaw in his side.
2– Average Muslims: he left the most perfect recitation, but he
will not be sinful.
: Rule of reciting the Holy Quran in Musical tunes
Music: it is foreign science (dealing with the art) of sounds (in time) . it
has its own rules and adjusts, its most important fields of research:
1- Different sound layers
2- The times of lengthening
And these two fields do not agree with the science of Tajweed.
As for sound layers, there is no problem if the reader of the Quran wants
to move from layer to another, if it was from a letter to letter.
Rule of reciting the Holy Quran in Musical
tunes
For one letter such as letters of ghunnah and madd, the reader must
abide one sound layer (while pronouncing) one letter, because of lack of
a commitment that, cut the letter to many letters, and the scholars
forbad (reciters) to do it.

As for lengthening Madd and ghunnah, the reader must abide by the
rhythms, which the Imam reciters have mentioned. If the reader does
not do it ( preferring the musical rules), he will be sinful.
We have been ordered to read the Holy Quran using the
Arabs tones and voices, which is to read with natural
temperament and intuitive as they had been formed.
For more information and enlightenment, please read to my
book titled:
“Clarifications of the rule of reading the Quran using tunes”.
“البيان لحكم قراءة القرآن الكريم بالألحان“
Rule Of Reciting The Holy Quran In Musical
Tunes
Recitation Speeds
Recitation Speeds
To recite the Holly Quran, there are three different speeds, as follows:
Realization (At-Tahqeeq): is the slowness in recitation without elongation
Rotation (At-Tadweer): is the moderation in recitation which is ether fast
nor slow.
Steep (Al-Hadr) (or falling): is the fastness in recitation without merging of
the letters.
The term intonation (At-tarteel) encompasses all the three speeds; because
it refers to tajweed of letters, and awareness of stops. Basically,
intonation(at-tarteel) is essential for the reader of the Quran, regardless of
his reading speed.
Al-Isti’aathah( seeking refuge) and Al-Basmalah
– The rule of Al-Isti’aathah( seeking refuge) and Al-Bismillah
– Permissible Ways when (saying) Al-Isti’aathah( seeking refuge) and
Al-Bismillah.
– Cases of Al-Bismillah in-between two surahs (or chapters).
Al-Isti’aathah( seeking refuge) and Al-Basmalah
If the reader wants to read something from the Holy Qur’an,
he must start with Al-Isti’aathah (seeking refuge), to meet
the commandment in Allah’s saying in the verse:
“So when you recite the Qur’an, seek refuge with Allah from
Shaitan (Satan), the outcast (the cursed one)”.
لقوله تعالى:( فإذا قرأت القرآن فاستعذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم(
Whether he is reading from the beginning or the middle of the
surah (chapter).
Al-Isti’aathah( seeking refuge) and Al-Basmalah
(saying) Al-Bismillah is a mandatory at the beginning of any
chapter Surah of the Holy Quran, except for Surah “At-tawbah”
(Repentance).
If the reader desires to read from the centre of any chapter Surat
and not from the beginning, then he has the choice to say
Al-Bismillah or not. But seeking refuge is required as previously
mentioned.
Note
There are some of the positions where the reader is better not to say Bismillah; these
positions are the verses that relate to the infidels (non-belivers) and imprecating (or
cursing) them, or that expose the hypocrites, or that mention the hellfire and its
account, or that mention the devil, such as:
“And they (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: Allah has begotten a son”
(وقالوا أتخذ الله ولداً) .
“Shaitan (Satan) threatens you with poverty”.
( الشيطان يعدكم الفقر)
(saying) Bismillah becomes mandatory if the verse begins with a clear pronoun that
refers to Allah The Almighty, for example:
“To Him (Alone) is referred the knowledge of the Hour”
(إليه يرد علم الساعة)
“He it is Who has created you from clay”.
(وهو الذي خلقكم من طين)
The permissible ways of Saying Al-Isti’aathah
(seeking refuge) and Al-Basmalah
There are four correct permissible ways to say Al-Isti’aathah( seeking refuge) and
Al-Bismillah, namely
Stop at all:
(أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم )– Stop {بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم} –- Stop– {الحمد لله رب العالمين}
2. Break Al-Isti’aathah from Al-Bismillah, and connect Al-bismillah with the
beginning of the recitation:
(أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم) – Stop {بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم} –Connect- {الحمد لله رب العالمين}
The permissible ways of Saying Al-Isti’aathah
(seeking refuge) and Al-Basmalah
3.Connect Al-Isti’aathah with Al-Bismillah, but break Al-Bismillah from
the
beginning of the recitation:
(أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم )–Connect- {بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم} –- Stop –{الحمد لله
رب العالمين}
4.Connecting all:
(أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم )–Connect- {بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم} –-Connect- {الحمد
لله رب العالمين}
The permissible ways of (saying) Al-Basmalah
between two chapters (Surah)
The way
(connecting) the
End of Surah
with Al-Basmalah
(connecting)
Al-Basmalah with the
beginning of Surah
The rule
1
Stop
Stop
Permissible
2
Stop
Connect
Permissible
3
Connect
Connect
Permissible
4
Connect
Stop
Not allowed
There are four ways for uttering Al-Basmalah between
two chapters (Surah): three are permissible, but one is not allowed:
The permissible ways of (saying) Al-Basmalah
between two chapters (Surah)
1. Stop at all:
{ولم يكن له كفواً أحد} – Stop- -{بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم} Stop- – {قل أعوذ برب الفلق}-
2. Stop at the end of the finished chapter (Surah) and connect Al-Bismillah with
the beginning of the next chapter:
{ولم يكن له كفواً أحد} – Stop- {بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم} Connect-{قل أعوذ برب الفلق}
3.Connect all:
{ولم يكن له كفواً أحد} – Connect- -{بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم} Connect- {قل أعوذ برب الفلق} –
The impermissible ways (saying) of
Al-Basmallah between two chapters (Surah)
It is impermissible to connect the end of the finished chapter (Surah) with
Al-Bismillah, while breaking Al-Bismillah from the beginning of the next chapter
(Surah):
{ولم يكن له كفواً أحد} – Connect- -{بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم} Stop– {قل أعوذ برب الفلق}
This way is not allowed because it could imply that Al-Bismillah is for the finished
chapter (Surah).
Note
The reciter should take into account the grammatical rules and the
linguistic analysis of the Arabic language when connecting
Al-Isti’aathah , Al-Bismillah and the beginning of surah, such as:
(أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيمِ) –Connect- {بسم الله الرحمن الرحيمِ} –-Connect-
{اقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلق}
The reciter should read Meem (م) at the end of Al-Isti’aathah with
Kasarah, the final Meem (م) of Alraheem(الرحيمِ) with Kasarah and
drop the connecting Hamza of:
{اقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلق} .
The Arabic Alphabets
1-Spoken alphabets.
2.Written alphabets.
3.Cases of the Arabic letter, except Alef letter(أ)
The Spoken letters
The Arabic Alphabets consist of (29) characters (letters) arranged by
Imam Nasr bin Asim Al-Laithi (died 90H.), according to the similarity in
their basic shape, and add dots to differentiate between homologues.
أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ك ل م ن هـ ولا ي
Note
The (sound of) Alef (أ), the first of the alphabets, is Hamza.
while the Madd Alef is placed before the final letter and
symbolized as (لا); because it is always consonant and the
the preceding letter always has fatiha.
As for Alef (أ) ,it is always consonant and preceded by a letter
Mattoon( with Fatiha sign).
The doubled letter (mushaddad): it consists of two letters, the first is
Sakin and the second is a Mutahark.
Written letters
It’s order for the Easterns:
أَبْجَدْ، هوز، حطي، كلمن، سعفص، قرشت، ثخذ، ضظغ
And the order for the Westerns:
أبجد، هوز، حطي، كلمن، صعفض، قرست، ثخذ، ظغش
Al Shatebi had followed the Westerns order in his book (Herz Al
Amani), and Ibn Al Jazari followed him as well in his Tayebah.

 

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